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Full text of "LFM-18 Troop Life And Training Aboard Ship"

[-18 



Headquarters 
U. S. Marine Corps 
Washington, D. 0. 
11 February 1955 

FOREWORD 



1. PURPOSE. The purposes of this manual are: 

a. To set forth certain principles and techniques to be observed in order 
to ensure that harmonious relations exist between embarked troops and naval 
personnel. 

b. To set forth basic procedures to be followed to ensure that full advantage 
is taken of all time spent aboard ship, however limited, for preparing troops for 
the accomplishment of their mission. 

2. CONTENT. This manual eovers}b^kJoctrine on command relationships 
gjHjTfmp life and trRinincjwhil underway. 

3. RECOMMENDATIONS. Recommendations for improving this manual 
are encouraged. Such recommendations should be forwarded to the Com- 
mandant, Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, Virginia. 

4. APPROVAL. This manual is approved and published for the information 
and guidance of all concerned. 

BY COMMAND OF GENERAL LEMUEL C. SHEPHERD, JR. 



R. McC. PATE 
Lieutenant General, U. S. Marine Corps 
Chief of Staff 



DISTRIBUTION: "X' 
OFFICIAL: 



R. K. ADAMS 

Captain, U. S. Marine Corps 

Publications Officer 



iii 



LFM-18 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Section 1. Introduction 1-1 

Section 2. Command Relationships 2-1 

Sections. Embarkation 3-1 

Section 4. Underway 4-1 

Section 5. Training Aboard Ship 5-1 



v 



LFM-18 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure Page 

Embarkation on an APA from pier 3-1 3-4 

Troops in mess compartment 4-1 4-4 

MP Company condncts inspection 4-2 4-6 

Organized entertainment 4-3 4-13 

Divine services being held en route to the objective 4-4 4-14 

Swimming call is sounded during a stop-over.. . 4-5 4-15 

Unit leaders orient their men on the forthcoming operation. 5-1 5-2 

Map of forthcoming operation mounted for inspection 5-2 5-3 

Relief maps are training aids that are easily understood 5-3 5-4 



vii 



LPM-18 



Section 1 



INTRODUCTION 

Paragraph Page 

General 101-104 1-1 



LFM-18 



Section 1 



INTRODUCTION 



101. In any war, except one fought on our own 
continent, the majority of American troops 
must cross ocean areas as a preliminary to 
combat. In the amphibious operation, the sea- 
borne approach phase will sometimes be the 
means for direct entry into the assault phase. 

102. Inasmuch as combat operations may be 
preceded by several weeks aboard transport 
vessels, it is essential that the practical aspects 
of troop life aboard ship be appreciated fully. 
Furthermore, every advantage must be taken 
during this period for the accomplishment of 
certain types of training. 

103. Physical conditioning of troops aboard a 
crowded transport is imperative if the men 
are to withstand the initial rigors of the amphib- 
ious assault and subsequent land operations. 



In addition, troop indoctrination as to the 
theater of operations and dissemination of 
detailed combat plans can be accomplished best 
during this sea-borne phase just prior to lard- 
ing. 

104. Techniques governing troop life and train- 
ing aboard ship resulting from experience are 
set forth in this manual. To ensure that har- 
monious relations exist between embarked 
troops and naval personnel, it is essential that 
the embarked troops be indoctrinated fully in 
the principles contained in this manual prior 
to or as soon as practicable after embarking on 
the transport. Continuous active supervision 
by troop officers is mandatory, particularly on 
extended voyages, in order to maintain troop 
cognizance of the ramifications of troop life 
and training aboard ship. 



1-1 



LFM-18 

Section 2 
COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS 

Paragraph Page 



General 201 2-1 

Authority of Commanding Officer of Ship 202 2-1 

Commanding Officer of Troops - 203 2-1 

Liaison 204 2-2 

Discipline 205 2-3 



34fcflI4 O - is - 2 



LFM-18 



Section 2 
COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS 



201. GENERAL 

a. Cooperation between the commanding 
officer of the ship and the commanding officer 
of troops, and all personnel under their respec- 
tive commands, is the basis of efficient adminis- 
tration of troops aboard ship. Article 1&0, 
Section 7 Uniform Code of Military Jus- 
tice, sets forth the authority of both the com- 
manding officer of a ship and the commanders 
of troop organizations, and is quoted hereunder : 

"(b) AUTHORITY OF OFFICERS OF SEP- 
ARATE ORGANIZATION OF MARINES.— 
When a force of marines is embarked on a 
naval vessel or vessels, as a separate organiza- 
tion, not a part of the authorized complement 
thereof, the authority and powers of the officers 
of such separate organizations of marines shall 
be the same as though such organization were 
serving at a naval station on shore, but nothing 
herein shall be construed as impairing the 
paramount authority of the commanding 
officer of any vessel over the vessel under his 
command and all persons embarked thereon." 
(Act of May 5, I960, eh. 169, Sec. 7(b), 64 
Stat. 145; 34 USC 623c; See also: Art. 0470, 
Navy Regulations, 1948.) 

In this connection, it is to be noted that Section 
0102d, NS, MCM, 1951, applies only to units 
attached to Navy ships for duty and is not 
applicable to ground or air elements of the 
landing force which are on board naval ships 
for operational purposes in connection with 
actual or potential landing operations. 

b. Troop commanders must be cognizant 
of the great responsibility imposed upon the 
commanding officer of the ship by U. S. Navy 
Regulations. He is charged with the operation 
and fighting efficiency of his ship as well as 
the safety of all personnel on board. To dis- 
charge this responsibility, he must have neces- 
sarily the paramount authority over all per- 
sonnel embarked on his ship. This includes 



not only the crew who operate the ship, but 
also the embarked troops who, by their pres- 
ence and activities, affect the ship's functioning. 

c. The embarkation of troops aboard a 
transport, however, is not to be construed as 
interjecting abnormal and disruptive conditions 
upon the otherwise normal and efficient routine 
functioning of the ship. The purpose of trans- 
ports is to transport troops, and their position 
in the family of naval vessels is that of a combat 
ship. Troops instead of guns, torpedoes, or 
aircraft are their principal weapons. 

d. In order to maintain a high level of 
combat efficiency in embarked amphibious 
units, the commanding officer of the ship will 
cooperate with the commanding officer of 
troops to the effect that matters of administra- 
tion of troop elements will be exercised through 
the troop chain of command insofar as may be 
consistent with the order and discipline of the 
ship. 

202. AUTHORITY OF COMMANDING 

OFFICER OF SHIP 

a. The highest authority aboard ship is 
the commanding officer of the vessel. All 
personnel aboard ship, including embarked 
troops, are subject to his orders. 

b. All orders from the commanding officer 
of the ship to embarked troops, so far as prac- 
ticable, will be transmitted through the com- 
manding officer of troops. 

c. Regulations governing troop life aboard 
ship, as promulgated by the commanding 
officer of the ship, usually are contained in 
ship's regulations. 

203. COMMANDING OFFICER OF TROOPS 

a. The senior troop commander of the 
organizations embarked on each transport is 



2-1 



LFM-18 



usually designated by higher authority as the 
commanding officer of troops. He is responsible 
for the discipline and efficiency of his command. 

b. The commanding officer of troops will 
make necessary arrangements with the com- 
manding officer of the ship relative to em- 
barkation, including assignment of troop space, 
space for organization officers, messing, and 
other administrative matters. Details of this 
work normally are delegated to designated 
troop staff officers. 

c. The commanding officer of troops will 
make necessary arrangements with the com- 
manding officer of the ship relative to loading 
and stowage of materiel. Details of this work 
normally are delegated to the embarkation 
officer. 

204. LIAISON 

a. The control and administration of em- 
barkation, life aboard ship, and debarkation of 
troops is dependent upon constant liaison and 
close cooperation between certain ship's officers 
and troop staff officers whose functional duties 
and responsibilities correspond. Troop staff 
officers and the ship's officers with whom they 
usually work in coordinating their activities 
are as follows: 

(1) Executive officer of ship and ex- 
ecutive officer of troops. 

(a) The ship's executive officer is 
the direct representative of the commanding 
officer of the ship in maintaining the military 
and general efficiency of the ship, and, to this 
end, it is provided that he shall be the line 
officer next in rank to the commanding officer. 
The executive officer is, in effect, the general 
manager of the ship. He takes care of the 
general operation of the ship, referring all mat- 
ters of importance to the commanding officer 
for decision. He is in general charge of the 
details of duty in connection with the mainte- 
nance and operation of the ship in all depart- 
ments and especially carries out all details of 
duty in connection with the organization, police, 
inspection, discipline, exercise, and efficient 
condition of the crew. The executive officer 
acts as a direct representative of the command- 



ing officer of the ship in matters pertaining to 
embarked troops. 

(b) The troop executive officer oc- 
cupies a similar position of authority as a direct 
representative of the commanding officer of 
troops and as a coordinator of all staff effort 
pertaining to the management and control of 
embarked troops. 

(c) Matters pertaining to the man- 
agement and control of embarked troops will 
usually be accomplished through these executive 
officers whose parallel position in the chain of 
command will require close coordination and 
liaison, 

(2) Troop billeting officer 

The troop billeting officer is desig- 
nated by the commanding officer of troops. He 
is responsible for the preparation of the neces- 
sary plans and for the supervision of the billet- 
ing of the embarked troops. He will coordinate 
his activities with the ship's combat cargo officer 
in matters pertaining to billeting. 

(3) Embarkation officer and combat 
cargo officer 

(a) The embarkation officer is a 
designated representative of the commanding 
officer of troops. He works in close liaison with 
the ship's combat cargo officer on all matters 
pertaining to loading, storage and unloading of 
material. 

(b) The combat cargo officer is a 
marine officer of the regular complement of the 
ship. He acts as advisor to the commanding 
officer of the ship in loading and unloading of 
troop cargo, embarkation, billeting and messing 
of troops. 

(4) Troop police officer 

The troop police officer is designated 
by the commanding officer of troops. He is 
responsible for the police of those areas aboard 
ship used or occupied by troop personnel. He 
will coordinate his activities with the executive 
officer of the ship and the master-at-arms in 
matters pertaining to the police of his areas of 
responsibility, and with the embarkation officer 
in making the necessary arrangements with the 
ship's first lieutenant for the issuance of clean- 
ing gear. 



2-2 



LFM-18 



(5) Troop mess officer 

The troop mess officer is designated 
by the commanding officer of troops. He is 
responsible for the messing of embarked tioops. 
He will coordinate his activities with the ship's 
mess officer and the ship's supply officer. For 
instructions on messing, see Section 4. 

(6) Officer of the deck and officer of 

the day 

(a) The officer of the deck is the 
direct representative of the commanding officer 
of the ship. He is responsible for the safety of 
the ship and is subject, however, to any orders 
he may receive from the commanding officer. 
Every officer subject to orders of the command- 
ing officer, except the executive officer, is sub- 
ordinate to the officer of the deck in the per- 
formance of his duties. 

(b) The officer of the day is the 
direct representative of the commanding officer 
of troops. His duties are conducted in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the Landing Party 
Manual, U. S. Navy, relative to interior guard 
duty, the ship's regulations, and the special 
instructions and orders prescribed by the 



commanding officer of the ship or command- 
ing officer of troops. Inasmuch as the troop 
and ship's guard will be coordinated, the officer 
of the day will maintain liaison with the officer 
of the deck. For instructions pertaining to the 
ship's guard see Section 4. 

(7) Troop recreation and morale 

officer 

The troop recreation and morale 
officer is designated by the commanding officer 
of troops. He is responsible for coordinating 
and planning the recreational programs and 
use of facilities with the ship's recreation officer. 
For detailed instructions, see Section 4. 

205. DISCIPLINE 

Discipline of embarked troops is the re- 
sponsibility of the commanding officer of troops. 
He maintains discipline through the officer of 
the day and all embarked troop officers. Any 
breach of discipline on the part of embarked 
troops is reported to the commanding officer of 
troops for appropriate action. This is not to be 
interpreted as restricting the authority of the 
commanding officer of the ship in matters of 
discipline concerning all personnel on board as 
set forth in Uniform Code of Military Justice. 



2-3 



LFM-18 



Section 3 
EMBARKATION 

Paragraph Pafe 

Planning for Embarkation 301 3-1 

Troop Embarkation . 302 3-3 



LFM-I8 



Section 3 
EMBARKATION 



301. PLANNING FOR EMBARKATION 

a. General 

(1) The embarkation of troops in ships 
presents problems which can be met success- 
fully only by thorough planning prior to the 
embarkation and careful execution of plans 
during the embarkation. Life aboard ship is 
greatly affected by proper embarkation and 
billeting. It is desirable that a minimum of 
readjustment be necessary after troops are 
aboard. 

(2) The commanding officer of troops 
to be embarked should send a group of officers 
to the ship for a conference with the ship's 
officers at the earliest practicable date prior to 
embarkation of troops. This group, headed 
by the troop executive officer, should include 
the billeting officer, the mess officer, the 
embarkation officer, the communication officer, 
and any other representatives desired. In the 
conference, the troop and ship's officers will 
determine the composition of the advance party, 
the details of duties to be performed, and at 
what time the advance party and special 
details will be embarked. 

b. Advance party and special details 

The advance party usually consists of 
the troop executive officer, embarkation officer, 
billeting officer, mess officer, administrative 
noncommissioned officer, mess and galley de- 
tails, ship's guard, guides, advanced communi- 
cation center detail, an officer representative 
from each major unit to be embarked, and 
such other special details as are necessary. 
The advance party and special details em- 
bark prior to the general embarkation of 
troops in order to prepare the ship to receive 
troops. Ship's crews normally cannot take 
over the additional duties required by the 



embarkation and administration of troop pas- 
sengers. The advance party normally embarks 
about 24 hours before the remainder of the 
troops so that they will be settled and func- 
tioning prior to the arrival of the main body of 
troops. 

c. Billeting plan 

(1) Preparation of plan 

The assignment of troop spaces is 
prepared in the form of a billeting plan by the 
billeting officer in accordance with the berthing 
diagrams contained in the ship's loading 
characteristics pamphlet. There are two meth- 
ods of billeting troops, tactical billeting and 
non-tactical billeting. Whether troops are 
billeted tactically or non-tactically is a com- 
mand decision of the commanding officer of 
troops. 

(a) Tactical billeting 

When troops are billeted tacti- 
cally, plans are made so that the first assault 
units are billeted nearest their debarkation 
stations. Troops to be debarked last are 
berthed in the lower berthing compartments, 
farthest from the debarkation stations. This 
system prevents unnecessary congestion caused 
hy boat teams moving through crowded com- 
partments located between their living spaces 
and debarkation stations. This type billeting 
is, however, inconvenient from the standpoint 
of administration, especially if troops are to 
remain on board for an extended period. 

(b) Non-tactical billeting 

If troops are to remain on board 
ships for a long period, or if troops are not to 
make an assault landing, it may be desirable 
to billet non-tactically. In non-tactical billet- 



3-1 



LFM-18 



ing, troop units are kept intact; each unit is 
assigned a block of berthing spaces or an 
entire berthing compartment. 

(2) Assignment of bunks 

Caution must be exercised in assign- 
ing bunks. Each living compartment should 
be inspected and a physical count of all bunks 
made. Such corrections as are noted are then 
marked on the ship's loading characteristics 
pamphlet. This eliminates the possible assign- 
ment of bunks which are listed on the ship's 
loading characteristics pamphlet but which 
have since been removed or are inaccessible. 

(3) Assignment of individual bunks 

Bunks are assigned to troop units 
by blocks so that the total number of bunks is 
the same as the number of troops in the unit. 
If it is tactical billeting, troops are kept intact 
in tactical units. Whenever possible on extend- 
ed voyages, troops should not be billeted more 
than four men to each bunk tier. Extra space 
may be designated under each tier as stowage 
places for heavy weapons and packs. On some 
transports, bunks are numbered so thai indi- 
viduals may be assigned bunks by number. 

(4) Billeting of special details 

Personnel performing special duty 
aboard ship and men on permanent details 
about the ship, such as mess personnel, should 
be assigned to a specific area in each troop com- 
partment, or to a special compartment. This 
facilitates orderly relief of details under all 
conditions. 

(5) Billeting assistants 

The billeting plan should make pro- 
vision for billeting assistants, each charged 
with the responsibility of checking a particular 
area, as designated by the billeting officer. The 
plan should also provide for guides to meet units 
as they embark and conduct them to the com- 
partment to which they have been assigned. 

d. Embarkation rosters 

The commanding officer of troops is 
responsible for submitting consolidated em- 



barkation rosters of all units embarked aboard 
ship. Early conferences of administrative per- 
sonnel of units to be embarked will facilitate 
uniform preparation and submission of unit 
rosters. Embarkation rosters must be absolutely 
accurate and the number of copies required 
will necessitate their being reproduced. Nor- 
mally, rosters should not be p-epared until the 
last 48 hours prior to embarkation because of 
last-minute changes which may occur in the 
status of personnel. Extra copies of the em- 
barkation rosters are kept for use in administra- 
tion of troops while aboard ship, and in the 
preparation of debarkation rosters. 

e. Recreation and morale 

Facilities for providing recreation and 
assisting in maintaining the morale of embarked 
troops is important, and requires considerable 
planning prior to embarkation. A recreation 
and morale officer should be appointed from 
among the officers to be embarked aboard the 
ship. He works in conjunction with any unit 
chaplain to be embarked and the ship's recre- 
ation officer. They coordinate and plan for 
recreational facilities and programs such as: 

Organized liberty and recreation ashore 

Organized entertainment aboard ship 

Movies aboard ship 

Use of ship's libraries 

In addition, plans should be made to 
augment the ship store's supply of candy, 
tobacco, and toilet gear in order to take care of 
troop needs. Procurement should be made of 
any athletic, musical, reading, or miscellaneous 
supplies that will provide recreation for the 
troops, while embarked. 

f. Pre-embarkation inspections 

Prior to embarkation, the troop execu- 
tive officer, representing the commanding offi- 
cer of troops, should visit the ship to inspect 
spaces and facilities to be used by the troops. 
In company with the ship's executive officer or 
the first lieutenant, he should inspect all troop 
compartments, bunks, troop heads, troop 



3-2 



LFM-18 



messes, troop officers' staterooms, and cargo 
holds to determine their condition prior to the 
arrival of troop passengers and equipment. All 
deficiencies must be called to the attention of 
the ship's executive officer or the first lieu- 
tenant immediately. 

g. Administrative facilities 

Space must be provided for troop ad- 
ministrative personnel. The personnel of the 
administrative section of the embarked troops 
must have space and facilities to set up a troop 
office. Troop office space may have to be pro- 
vided in passageways or on hatch covers. How- 
ever, it is desirable to have a stateroom or 
office near the ship's first lieutenant's office. In 
addition, a room for troop planning, staff work, 
and conferences is required. It might be pos- 
sible to utilize the ship's communication system. 
If that system is not available, troop phones 
may have to be installed. The embarkation 
officer should contact the ship's combat cargo 
officer to determine the availability of office 
space and administrative aids, such as mimeo- 
graph machines, etc. Every effort must be 
made to minimize space and personnel em- 
ployed and to avoid interference with the 
functioning of the ship. 

302. TROOP EMBARKATION 

a. General 

When possible, troop units to be em- 
barked are formed on the beach, pier, or dock, 
according to the berthing area to which they 
have been assigned in the billeting plan, 

b. Embarkation tables 

Embarkation tables are drawn up for 
embarkation of large units to control the move- 
ment and arrival of units at the embarkal.ion 
area. 

c. Arrival aboard 

The first units to go aboard should be 
those which will be billeted the greatest distance 
from their embarkation point aboard ship; i. e., 
those billeted in the lowest troop compartments. 
They are met by the advance detail guides who 



lead them to the proper compartments. Lad- 
ders, compartments, and routes should all be 
numbered and marked to prevent troops from 
getting lost. When the embarkation areas are 
congested, units will have to be embarked in 
the order of their arrival at the embarkation 
site, regardless of the billeting plan. As troops 
are embarked, they must proceed to and remain 
in the berthing compartment to which they 
have been assigned. 

d. Stowage of individual equipment 

As soon as each man arrives at the bunk 
to which he has been assigned, he should put 
his gear on it and then remain in the immediate 
vicinity. Troops should be cautioned against 
putting gear on one bunk and occupying another. 
A uniform system of stowing equipment and 
personal gear should be followed while under- 
way. To ensure uniformity, a stowage diagram 
should be prepared. This diagram should be 
distributed to the troops prior to embarkation. 
In addition to assisting the troops, by pointing 
out the most convenient and least space-con- 
suming method of stowage, a uniform method 
of stowage should assist unit commanders in 
determining if each member has his required 
equipment. 

e. Physical muster 

Physical muster should be taken as the 
troops board ship when using a brow to board 
fromadock. When boarding by nets from small 
boats, a physical muster {sight check) should 
be held by each unit as soon as possible upon 
completion of embarkation. Results are re- 
ported immediately to the troop adjutant. Em- 
barkation rosters are brought up to date and 
mailed before the ship sails. 

f. Loose gear 

Equipment and personal gear should not 
be stowed about the decks, nor should equip- 
ment be hung from the overhead or fire-fighting 
fixtures. On certain ships, poles, hooks, and 
other devices have been welded to bulkheads so 
that equipment may be stowed in an orderly 
fashion. If the devices are available, then in- 
structions for their uniform utilization should be 
included in the stowage diagram issued to troops. 



3-3 



LFM-18 





Figure 3-1— Embarkation on an APA from pier. 



g. Ventilation 

Ventilators must be kept clear and open 
to ensure all possible ventilation for those em- 
barked in each compartment. Troop unit 
commanders should frequently inspect ventila- 
tion outlets to ensure that they have not been 
damaged. 



h. Shore leave and liberty 

When the ship is to remain in port for 
some time after completion of loading and em- 
barkation, troops should be given liberty and 
shore leave, if practicable. Plans should be 
made prior to embarkation for liberty uniforms 
and recreational facilities to care for troop needs 
during this period. 



3-4 



LFM-18 



Section 4 
UNDERWAY 

Paragraph Page 

General 401 4-1 

Troop Administration 402 4-1 

Communications 403 4-1 

Troop Mess 404 4-3 

Troop Officers' Mess 405 4-3 

Inspections 406 4-5 

Health and Sanitation 407 4-7 

Fresh Water.. 408 4-8 

Care of Equipment 409 4-8 

Cleaning and Preservation 410 4-8 

Ship's Guard 411 4-8 

Pilfering 412 4-10 

Security. _ _ _ _ 413 4-10 

Battle Stations and General Drills 414 4-11 

Life Preservers 415 4-11 

Recreation and Morale 416 4-12 

Stop-Overs 417 4-13 

Uniforms. 418 4-14 



LFM-18 



Section 4 
UNDERWAY 



401. GENERAL 

Overseas movements of troops are made 
under circumstances that require the utmost 
organization in all activities. The efficiency 
of shipboard organization will be reflected in 
the morale, physical fitness, training, and 
general well-being of troops, as well as the 
condition of their equipment, when they debark. 

402. TROOP ADMINISTRATION 

a. Publishing ship's regulations 

(1) If the ship's regulations have not 
been published to all troops prior to em- 
barkation, this must be accomplished as soon 
as possible after arrival aboard, 

(2) At least once a week, pertinent 
parts of the ship's regulations should be pub- 
lished to all embarked troops. 

b. Morning reports 

Physical musters are held daily and 
reports are submitted to the commanding officer 
of troops. 

c. Office hours and request mast 

(1) The commanding officer of troops 
is responsible to the captain of the ship for 
the discipline and morale of all embarked 
troops. 

(2) Office hours and request mast are 
held at the time and place designated by the 
commanding officer of troops. 

d. Use of ship's brig 

Arrangements are made with the ship's 
executive officer for the use of the ship's brig, if 
necessary. 



e. Laundry facilities 

(1) Arrangements arc made with the 
ship's supply officer for troop laundry prior to 
the embarking of the main units. 

(2) A troop laundry officer should be 
appointed by the commanding officer of troops 
to coordinate and supervise this activity. 

(3) Additional personnel, as required, 
must be furnished to the ship's laundry by the 
embarked troops so that the additional laundry 
service can be provided. 

(4) Laundry should be collected and 
returned by compartments. 

(5) Washing of clothes in heads or 
scuttlebutts is prohibited. Besides being a 
waste of water, this activity would create 
unsanitary conditions. 

f. Barber facilities 

(1} Arrangements for troop barbers to 
work in the ship's barber shop are made with 
the ship's executive officer prior to the embark- 
ing of the main units. 

(2) Provisions must be made for addi- 
tional barbers to meet troop requirements. 
Permission to cut hair on the well decks, the 
fan tail, or in troop compartments should be 
obtained. 

403. COMMUNICATIONS 

a. Liaison between naval staff, ship, and 
troop communciation officers 

Adequate and satisfactory solution of 
all communication problems requires early lia- 
ison and elose cooperation between naval staff, 
ship, and troop communication officers. The 



4-1 



LFM-18 



troop communication officer visits the naval 
staff or ship communication officer at the earliest 
possible time and exchanges applicable informa- 
tion of the following types: 

(1) Requirements for and availability 
of working space and facilities aboard ship for 
embarked troops. 

(2) .Requirements for and assistance 
required in maintaining adequate and efficient 
communication guard for emoarked troops. 

(3) Requirements for and availability 
of space for stowage of communication vehicles, 
equipment, and supplies of embarked troops. 

(4) Requirements for and abilities of 
available troops communication personnel to 
assist naval personnel, 

(5) Ability of ship to meet communica- 
tion requirements of all embarked troops, in- 
cluding basic unit and all supporting arms (ar- 
tillery, naval gunfire, air, etc.) . 

(6) Availability of radio equipment to 
meet specific requirements of troop units aboard 
flagships, transports, control ships, and landing 
craft. 

(7) Availability of communication fa- 
cilities and equipment to meet requirements for 
tactical logistical groups. 

(8) Plans for early and adequate test of 
all communication facilities and circuits. 

(9) Plans to meet communication re- 
quirements of embarked command post and any 
rear echelon remaining aboard ship during early 
stages of an amphibious operation. 

(10) Plans to establish necessary com- 
munication channels between naval unit afloat 
and troop unit ashore during early phases 
of operation, 

(11) Naval and troop radio call signs. 

(12) Naval and troop radio frequency 

plans. 

b. Joint Communication Center 

A Joint Communication Center is estab- 
lished aboard ship for the naval staff, the ships, 



and embarked troops, which serves to promote 
the easy exchange of information between 
corresponding commanders and staff officers, 
and to avoid duplication of effort. The Joint 
Communication Center should be established 
prior to the arrival of the main body of troops. 

c. Electronic and communication facilities 
available to the troop commander 

Adequate electronic and communica- 
tion facilities should be installed in amphibious 
ships for the troop commander's use. Included 
are radio installations with suitable antennas 
and remotes, and intercommunication facilities 
such as telephones, voice tubes, and message 
tubes. These facilities should be made available 
to the troop commander in time for necessary 
testing and calibration. Electronic repair and 
maintenance facilities will be made available 
to embarked troops as required. 

d. Troop communications while en route 

Units normally will be divided into 
several echelons during the movement to the 
objective. Sufficient communication facilities 
must be provided in order that a troop head- 
quarters can function efficiently while em- 
barked. Subject to radio silence restrictions 
that may be imposed, the troop communication 
officer provides for the activation of troop 
radio circuits for communication among the 
troop echelons embarked in ships traveling 
in company. 

e. Provisions of space 

The troop communication officer ob- 
tains space for the troop communication center 
from the naval staff or ship communication 
officer. This space should be located adjacent 
to the naval staff or ship communication office 
if possible. 

f. Troop messengers 

These men are supplied as required by 
the naval staff or ship communication officer 
for the expeditious handling of messages for 
embarked troop units. 

g. Clearance of messages 

All troop communications to or from 
the ship prior to the commencement of assault 



4-2 



LFM-18 



operations go through the naval staff or ship 
communication office. Outgoing communica- 
tions are released as directed by the appropriate 
naval commander after first being released by 
the troop commanding officer or his duly 
authorized representative. 

404. TROOP MESS 

a. Troop mess officer 

As a member of the advance detail sent 
aboard at the port of embarkation, the troop 
mess officer should make necessary arrange 
ments with the ship's supply officer for the 
messing of troops. It will be necessary for him 
to determine the following information regard- 
ing ship's procedure for messing of embarked 
troops : 



troops 



(1) Capacity of the galley for feeding 



(2) Location of mess lines and pro- 
cedure for controlling them 

(3) Rate of feeding troops 

(4) Size and composition of troop 
mess detail necessary to supplement the ship's 
galley and mess force 

b. The troop mess detail 

Troop mess details should report on 
board 24 hours prior to the general embarkation 
of troops. Cooks, bakers, butchers, and mess- 
men are examined by a troop medical officer 
prior to assignment, and thereafter with the 
ship's mess force by a ship's medical officer. 

c. Messing compartment 

Troops should be kept clear of messing 
compartments between meals, except where 
special arrangements have been made with the 
ship to have certain mess tables available for 
recreational purposes. Troops should not re- 
move food or ship's mess gear from messing 
compartments at any time. 

d. Meal hours 

Troops normally are fed thr- meals a 
day, if mess facilities aboard ship permit. 



Meal hours are specified in the ship's daily 
routine and vary with each ship. The troop 
and ship's menus should be identical in every 
respect while troops are aboard. 

e. Noncommissioned officers' mess 

Noncommissioned officers of embarked 
troops should be permitted to eat in the ship's 
noncommissioned (petty) officers' mess, to the 
extent permitted by its capacity. The capacity 
of the noncommissioned (petty) officers' mess 
aboard most transports usually limits its use to 
troop noncommissioned officers in pay grade 
E-7 and E-6. 

f. Messing irregularities 

The troop mess officer should report any 
irregularities which may arise in the mess to the 
commanding officer of troops. Inspections of 
the troop mess and meals should always 
consider ; 

(1) Quality and quantity of food 

(2) Manner in which it is served 

(3) Preparation of food 

(4) Cleanliness 

(5) Availability of second helpings of 

food 

(6) Waste of food by troops 

(7) Time allowed for eating. 

405. TROOP OFFICERS' MESS 

a. Troop officers usually mess with the 
ship's officers in the ship's wardroom. Where 
the ship's characteristics require that separate 
messes be used by troop and ship's officers, they 
both should come under the wardroom mess. 
The service of wardroom mess stewards should 
be made available to troop officers on the same 
basis as to ship's officers. Dependent upon the 
number of officers, one or two sittings may be 
required for each meal. A roster of officers at 
each sitting, and a chart showing seating 
arrangements should be posted in the ward- 
room. 



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LFM-18 




LFM-18 



b. Payment of bills 

Marine and Army officers are entitled 
to reimbursement for subsistence for sea travel 
at a rate and under certain conditions as set 
forth in Joint Travel Regulations and Navy 
Travel Regulations. {If an officer is required 
to pay a mess bill while aboard ship for trans- 
portation, reimbursement will be accomplished 
upon presentation of proper receipt snowing 
that the officer has paid for subsistence in a 
wardroom mess. Reimbursement will not be 
paid for subsistence while in a sea-travel status 
when training or on maneuvers. In all cases, 
when Marine or Army officers are aboard ship, 
they will not be checked for field rations. Naval 
officers attached to and serving with Marine 
or Army troops are not entitled to reimburse- 
ment of expenses for subsistence, regardless of 
their status, while aboard ship, because they do 
not come under the provisions of the current 
regulations. However, while aboard ship, the; 
will not be checked for field rations.) 

406, INSPECTIONS 
a. Compartment 

Troop compartments should be in- 
spected daily by the commanding officer of 
troops, or his executive officer. This inspection 
should be conducted in conjunction with in- 
spections held by the ship. These inspections 
will require that compartments be clear of the 
bulk of troops and, when possible, should be 
held in the morning and at the time troops are 
topside during personnel and equipment in- 
spections. Compartment inspections are part 
of the daily routine and should be conducted 
as follows: 

{1) Troops clear the compartment deck 
of all equipment by taking it topside for inspec- 
tion and placing it on hatch covers, or suspend- 
ing it from bunk frames. 

(2) All bunks are made and secured. 

(3) After the compartment has been 
cleaned, the compartment cleaning detail and 
the senior officer in command of the troop unit 



billeted in the compartment stand by for 
inspection. 

(4) The inspecting officer, accompanied 
by the officer representative of the ship, the 
police officer, and police sergeant, inspects each 
troop compartment paying particular attention 
to the following: 

(a) That decks and bulkheads are 
properly policed. 

(b) That no equipment of any sort 
is hung on fire-fighting fixtures, or suspended 
from the overhead. 

(c) That ventilation systems are 
functioning properly. 

(d) That equipment, such as ma- 
chine guns, mortars, sea bags, etc., is properly 
stowed and secured in such manner as not to 
damage the ship or the equipment. 

(e) That heads, shower rooms, and 
scuttlebutts are in proper police and functioning, 

(f) That no wet swabs, brooms, or 
laundry are present in any of the troop compart- 
ments. 

(g) That there is no deliberate 
defacing or damaging of the ship, such as writ- 
ing on the bulkhead, chipping paint, etc. 

(h) That a report be made of all 
damaged or broken installations, such as shower 
heads, mirrors, bunks, etc. 

(5) Inspections during inclement 
weather may be made by having all troops 
occupy their bunks instead of going topside. 

b. Personnel 

Inspections of personnel and their 
weapons and equipment should be held daily. 
When possible, these inspections should be 
conducted when the troops are required to 
remain topside during compartment inspections. 
Proper arrangements between responsible mem- 
bers of the ship's and troop staffs will avert any 
conflict between ship's company and troops in 
the use of designated areas for troop inspection 
and formations. Officers of embarked troop 



4-5 



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Figure — MP Company conducts inspection. 



units should conduct inspections of their respec- 
tive organizations, paying particular attention 
to the following: 

(1) That all weapons are clean and 
properly oiled and that all individual equipment 
is serviceable for combat. 

(2) That troops are as clean and pre- 
sentable as conditions aboard ship will permit. 

(3) That proper action is being taken 
to replace any shortages of weapons and 
equipment. 

(4) That all personnel have been issued, 
and are wearing, identification tags. 

(5) That life preservers are being worn, 
if required, and are in serviceable condition. 



c. Equipment and clothing 

Inspections should be carried out to in- 
clude those items of equipment, weapons, and 
clothing not normally carried topside for routine 
inspections. This refers particularly to crated 
weapons, clothing in sea bags and packs, radios, 
and other articles which are stowed in holds 
or in troop compartments. These inspections 
are made necessary by the deteriorating action 
of salt air and dampness aboard ship, losses due 
to laundering, shifting of cargo, pilfering, etc. 

d. Vehicles 

Frequent inspections of all troop vehi- 
cles should be conducted to ensure their proper 
functioning when debarked at the objective. 
Permission must be obtained from the ship to 



4-6 



LFM-18 



enter the cargo holds for these inspections. The 
inspections should include: 

(1) Inspection of vehicle waterproofing. 

(2) Cheek for gas and oil leakages. 

(3) Inspection of batteries. 

(4) Inspection of shoring to see that 
vehicles are well-secured. 

(5) Inspections for deterioration due to 
dampness and sea water. 

(6) Inspections of tires. 
407. HEALTH AND SANITATION 

a. Responsibility 

The health, hygiene, and sanitation of 
all embarked troops is the responsibility of the 
commanding officer of troops. The troop medi- 
cal officer will hold frequent inspections and 
bring any discrepancies in the health, sanitation, 
and hygiene of troops noted by him to the atten- 
tion of the commanding officer of troops. 
Special attention should be given to the fol- 
lowing by the medical officer: 

(1) Adequacy of ventilation in troop 
compartments 

(2) Sanitation of troop galleys, mess 
spaces, compartments, showers, and heads 

(3) Personal hygiene of troops 

b. Liaison 

The troop medical officer will maintain 
constant liaison with the ship's medical officer 
on all matters pertaining to the health of 
embarked troops. The troop medical officer 
should accompany the ship's medical officer on 
all inspections of the ship's areas used or 
occupied by the troops. 

c. Bathing 

Embarked troops should be required to 
bathe as frequently as the water supply aboard 
ship will permit. If only salt water is available, 
this should not deter troops from bathing as 
frequently as is necessary to maintain proper 
hygienic standards. 



d. Sanitation measures 

The following sanitary measures should 
be observed to ensure proper standards of 
health and well-being of embarked troops. 

(1) Communicable diseases should be 
reported at once to the commanding officer of 
troops. 

(2) Members of the troop mess force 
contracting any diseases should be relieved at 
once. 

(3) Bedding should be brought topside 
and aired frequently. 

(4) Swabs should be aired and sunned 
on the weather decks daily. 

(5) Suitable clothes lines should be 
rigged topside and wet clothing should not be 
kept in berthing spaces. If available, drying 
rooms should be provided for drying clothes by 
the troops. 

(6) During the day, weather permit- 
ting, unoccupied troops should be kept in the 
open air as much as possible. If practicable, 
troops should be allowed to sunbathe, but care 
must be taken to prevent sunburn. 

(7) The entire troop deck should be 
policed several times daily, and washed down 
as frequently as necessary to maintain sanitary 
conditions. 

(8) Head and washroom lacilities should 
be allotted to troops on the same basis as to 
members of the ship's crew. 

e. Sick call 

Arrangements are made with the com- 
manding officer of the ship for the troop medical 
officer to use the ship's facilities for the treat- 
ment of troops, and for daily sick call. Troop 
corpsmen will be used to supplement ship's 
medical personnel for the treatment of troops, 
standing sick bay watches, etc. Small unit aid 
stations for the treatment of minor scratches, 
sunburn, etc., may be set up in troop compart- 
ments and tended by troop corpsmen. Sick 
call will be held daily at a time designated in 
the ship's daily routine. 



LFM-18 



408. FRESH WATER 

a. Restricted use 

(1) Restrictions may be imposed upon 
the use of fresh water, due to limited production 
and storage facilities. 

(2) Fresh water should be made avail- 
able to troops and ship's company on an equal 
basis. 

(3) The commanding officer of troops 
exercises strict supervision over the use of fresh 
water by troops in order to prevent waste, 

b. Canteens 

Troops fill their canteens during water 
hours and should keep canteens at least half 
full at all times. The unused contents of can- 
teens should not be wasted when refilling 
canteens. 

c. Washing 

(1) Troops should have fresh water 
available for washing, shaving, etc., during 
certain hours each day. 

(2) Troops should avoid waste of fresh 
water by turning on faucets, showers, etc., only 
when water actually is being used on the body. 

409. CARE OF EQUIPMENT 

a. General 

Climatic conditions aboard ship require 
that extra precautions be taken in the care of 
weapons and equipment. Dampness and salt 
water cause corrosion and deterioration to an 
extent beyond thaL usually experienced ashore. 

b. Equipment stowed topside 

Equipment stowed topside must be 
properly secured in such manner as not to 
damage the ship or equipment. Whenever 
possible it should be protected from the weather 
by canvas and tarpaulins. Such equipment 
must be cleaned and oiled at regular intervals. 

c. Equipment stowed in troops spaces 
and holds 

Equipment such as machine guns, 
mortars, etc., must be stowed in such manner 



as not to damage the ship or its fixtures. Such 
equipment must be kept clean, dry, and, where 
applicable, oiled at all times. Crated weapons 
must be stowed in such manner that they may 
be frequently checked for deterioration. 

410. CLEANING AND PRESERVATION 

a. Responsibility 

The commanding officer of troops is 
responsible for the cleanliness and preservation 
of all living compartments, wash rooms, heads, 
holds, hatches, and deck spaces allotted to 
troops and of ladders leading thereto. Com- 
partment commanders are assigned areas of 
responsibility for police purposes. The over- 
all policing of areas occupied or used by troops 
is supervised and coordinated by a troop officer 
designated as the troop police officer. 

b. Cleaning details 

(1) Troop cleaning details are assigned 
daily to clean all troop compartments and other 
troop spaces. 

(2) Sufficient cleaning details should 
remain on board during final debarkation, 
except debarkation for combat or simulated 
combat, to give final cleaning to all areas for 
whieh troops were responsible. 

(3) Troops will not perform duties 
which are normally the responsibility of the 
ship's company except under unusual conditions 
and then approval of the commanding officer 
of troops is required. 

c. Cleaning gear 

The embarkation officer should make 
arrangements with the ship's first lieutenant 
for the procurement of cleaning gear to be 
issued to troop cleaning details. All cleaning 
gear must be returned to the ship's store- 
keeper prior to debarkation. 

411. SHIP'S GUARD 

a. General 

(1) Prior to the embarkation of troops, 
a ship's guard is established by the com- 
manding officer of troops. 



4-8 



LFM-18 



(2) The ship's guard detailed by the 
commanding officer of troops must be sufficient 
to man sentry posts designated by the com- 
manding officer of the ship. 

(3) Orders for each sentry post desig- 
nated by the commanding officer of the ship 
are furnished to the commanding officer of 
troops. The troop executive officer, in his 
pre-embarkation conference with the ship's 
executive officer, should ensure that orders for 
each sentry post are correct prior to arrival 
of the advance detail. 

(4) The establishment of additional 
sentry posts by the commanding officer of 
troops to maintain troop discipline, aid in 
troop administration, or safeguard troop equip- 
ment is permissible so long as locations of these 
posts and orders for these posts do not conflict 
with the ship's orders and regulations. 

(5) The guard musters at a specified 
time each day for inspection and instruction 
by the new officer of the day, and at such other 
times as the commanding offieer'of troops may 
direct. 

(6) The length of each watch should, 
in general, conform to that of the ship's 
watch. 

(7) Personnel of the guard may be 
changed at the discretion of the commanding 
officer of troops, who coordinates guard duty 
requirements with his schedule of training. 

(8) In actual operations and during 
training periods involving ship-to-shore exer- 
cise, the guard is relieved from its duties as 
recommended by the commanding officer of 
troops to the commanding officer of the ship. 

b. Duties 

The primary duty of the ship's guard 
is to assist the commanding officer of the ship 
in dealing with any situation that may arise 
which is directly connected with the troops. 
The ship's guard will carry out all orders and 
regulations promulgated by the commanding 
officer of the ship and the commanding officer 
of troops. When the ship's brig is used to 
confine a member of the embarked troops, it 



will be administered by additional sentries of 
the ship's guard posted by the commanding 
officer of troops. 

c. Sentries 

{1) Members of the guard conduct 
themselves in accordance with the provisions 
of the Landing Party Manual, U. S. Navy. 

(2) Special instructions should be given 
by the new officer of the day to all sentries prior 
to posting them. These instructions should 
cover general instructions for interior guard 
duty as outlined in the Landing Party Manual, 
U. S. Navy, ship's orders and regulations, and 
such special orders as may apply. 

(3) Prior to posting the guard, each 
sentry should be provided with a copy of the 
special orders pertaining to his assigned post 
and these orders should be memorized by the 
sentry concerned. The new officer of the day 
must ensure that each sentry fully understands 
his duties and special orders. 

(4) Special orders for each post are 
usually permanently posted near the post. 
However, if this is not done, the special orders 
should be mounted and waterproofed in such 
a manner that it will be practical for them to be 
carried by the sentry. 

(5) Brassards with the initials "S. G." 
are usually provided members of the guard by 
the ship on which troops are embarked. If 
not available, brassards with the initials 
"M. P." may be available among the troop 
units embarked. However, if these are not 
available, some special article of uniform, such 
as cartridge belt or helmet liner should be worn 
by members of the guard to distinguish them 
from other embarked troops. 

d. Restricted areas 

Certain areas are plaeed out of bounds 
for all embarked troops and are designated as 
restricted areas in the ship's regulations. Some 
of the most common of these are as follows: 

(1) The bridge 

The bridge is usually a restricted 
area to all embarked officers and enlisted men. 



4-9 



LFM-18 



(2) Engine room 

The engine room is a restricted 
area to all embarked officers and enlisted men. 

(3) Boat deck 

Certain areas of the ship such as 
the boat deck are usually reserved for the use 
of officers and are restricted areas to all enlisted 
men. 

(4) Gun tubs 

Gun tubs are restricted areas to all 
embarked troops except the assigned crews on 
watch. 

(5) Landing craft 

Landing craft are restricted areas 
to all embarked troops except when engaging 
in debarkation exercises. 

(6) Officer areas 

Areas designated as "Officers 
Country" are restricted to enlisted men except 
when on official business. 

412. PILFERING 

a. Stationing of sentries 

(1) Special precautions must be taken 
to prevent pilfering of both personal and 
Government property. 

(2) Sentries should be stationed to 
protect troop equipment and supplies from 
pilferage. 

(3) Patrols may be used to protect 
individual equipment in troop compartments. 

b. Checking of equipment 

(1) Troop organic equipment and sup- 
plies should be checked at frequent intervals to 
prevent losses through pilfering. 

(2) Troop units should be inspected 
with full equipment to discover any losses of 
individual equipment. 



c. Discipline 

(1) Pilfering by troops is kept to a 
minimum by the maintenance of a proper state 
of discipline. 

(2) Officers and noncommissioned 
officers must remain alert to prevent pilfering 
and to apprehend pilferers. 

(3) Prompt disciplinary action must 
be taken against apprehended pilferers- 

413. SECURITY 

a. Military matters 

Ship's movements, landing operations, 
or any other military matters pertaining to the 
transport will not be discussed with civilians 
or strangers ashore, nor will interviews be given 
or articles submitted for publication except as 
authorized by naval regulations. 

b. Floating objects 

No articles which will float shall be 
thrown overboard while underway. 

c. Darken ship 

During darken ship, striking matches, 
smoking, use of flashlights, or the exposure of 
any naked light is prohibited in any place from 
which a light can be seen from outside the 
transport. 

d. Cameras 

Possession of cameras by troops aboard 
ship is prohibited, unless otherwise specified by 
existing orders. 

e. Personal radio receivers 

Personal radio receivers may not be in- 
stalled or operated aboard ship in wartime. All 
personal radio equipment aboard ship shall be 
retained during passage by the commanding 
officer of troops. 

f. Mail 

(1) Troop mail is governed by existing 
censorship regulations which are usually incor- 
porated in the ship's regulations. 



4-10 



LFM-18 



(2) Troop officers designated as censors 
must be thoroughly instructed in navy censor- 
ship regulations. 

414. BATTLE STATIONS AND GENERAL 
DRILLS 

a. Antiaircraft details 

Landing force personnel should not be 
assigned to ship's antiaircraft details during 
movement to the objective. Such assignment 
may become necessary, however, if heavy com- 
bat casualties have been incurred by ship's 
personnel. 

b. Fire and collision 

During fire or collision drills, or in case 
of actual fire or collision, troops should remain 
quietly in their assigned places, except that they 
will immediately clear passageways and affected 
areas of the ship. 

c. Smoking 

Smoking is prohibited during drills or 
actual emergencies, and as otherwise specified 
in ship's regulations or special orders. 

d. Genera) quarters 

(1) With the exception of special de- 
tails, such as the guard and antiaircraft watches, 
troops must move to and remain in troop com- 
partments during general quarters, keeping 
passageways and ladders clear for personnel 
engaged in the drill or emergency, 

(2) Designated troop officers must join 
their commands in the troop compartments 
during general quarters. 

e. Abandon ship 

(1) Troops must be thoroughly in- 
structed and exercised in the procedure for 
abandoning ship as soon as practicable after 
arrival aboard. 

(2j Assembly areas and routes thereto 
must be prescribed for all troops, as are boats, 
rafts, and debarkation nets to be used by each 
subordinate troop unit. Assembly areas and 



routes thereto should follow the debarkation 
plan as closely as practicable. 

(3) Troops may assist in launching of 
life rafts, if necessary, and should be instructed 
in the method of launching rafts. 

(4) Troops must be impressed with the 
desirability of using debarkation nets and lines 
in abandoning ship, rather than jumping over 
the side. However, should it become necessary 
to abandon ship by jumping over the side, 
troops must carry out certain safety precau- 
tions to avoid injury. 

(a) Helmets will be removed before 

jumping. 

(b) Cork and kapok life jackets 
must be properly secured and held by the arms 
and hands in such a manner that the force of 
hitting the water will not remove the life 
jacket or injure the wearer. 

(c) Jump feet first with legs together. 

(d) Orally inflated and C0 2 life 
belts must be inflated fully only after reaching 
the water. 

(e) Move away from the ship's side 
as quickly as possible upon entering the water 
to prevent injury from falling objects and to 
clear the water for others to follow. 

415. LIFE PRESERVERS 

a. Types 

Troops are issued life preservers imme- 
diately after arrival aboard ship and must be 
instructed in their use. They retain the pre- 
servers until disembarking on the beach. 
Three general types of life preservers may be 
issued : 

(1) CO: life preservers, or other auto- 
matically inflated types, made of rubber or 
other material and inflated by a small cylinder 
of gas 

(2) Orally inflated life preservers made 
of rubber or other material and inflated by 
blowing through a tube 

(3,1 Cork or kapok type of life preserver 
or life jacket. 



4-11 



LFM-18 



b. Care 

(1) Troops must keep life preservers 
in proper working condition at all times. Life 
preservers are not to be used as pillows or left 
underfoot on deck. 

(2) Troops must be cautioned not to 
remove the C0 2 cylinders from the life belts of 
that type, nor to waste the CO s by prematurely 
inflating the preservers. 

c. When worn 

(1) Except when worn during ship- 
board drills, debarkation, re-embarkation, 
heavy seas and when specified by troop officers, 
troops will keep issued life preservers on their 
assigned bunks, 

(2) Troops engaged in landing opera- 
tions using any type of landing craft will wear 
life preservers ashore and discard them beyond 
the highwater line. Provisions will be made 
by the beach party to return the preservers to 
the ship. If LVT's with overhead cover are 
employed, care must be exercised to ensure 
that the type life preserver worn will permit the 
exit of the wearer through escape hatches. 

(3) On maneuvers or other training 
exercises, troops will discard life preservers in 
the above manner and recover them on the 
beach prior to re-embarking in landing craft. 

(4) Troops leaving the ship upon ar- 
rival at their final destination and disembarking 
down a gangway to a pier will leave their life 
preservers on their respective bunks, or other 
designated places. 

d. How worn 

Troops should be cautioned to wear life 
preservers high enough on the body to prevent 
the wearer from turning upside down, once he is 
in the water. All types of life preservers should 
be properly secured when worn. 

416. RECREATION AND MORALE 

a. Ship's facilities 

(1) The commanding officer of troops, 
through his representative, arranges for the 



use of the ship's recreational facilities by the 
embarked troops. 

(2) The ship's library should be avail- 
able for use by troops. Additional books should 
be procured by the ship prior to the embarka- 
tion of troops, if necessary. 

(3) The showing of motion pictures is 
attended by troops as well as the ship's com- 
pany. Due to crowded conditions, two showings 
may be necessary, one for troops and one for 
ship's company. 

b. Athletic equipment 

The troop recreation and morale officer 
will provide ropes, medicine balls, weights, 
boxing gloves, and other athletic equipment 
suitable for use aboard ship. It must be kept 
in mind, however, that there is no satisfactory 
substitute for organized exercise. 

c. Ship's service store 

(1) Exchange items, such as cigarettes, 
toilet articles, and candy are made available 
for troops at the ship's service store. 

(2) The supply of exchange items in 
the ship's service store should be augmented 
by additional supplies provided by the troops. 
Special provisions should be made to provide 
exchange items for troops embarking on small 
ships, such as LST's, etc., which have no ship's 
service store available to troops. 

d. Daily news service 

(1) Daily mimeographed news sheets 
compiled from news items received by the 
ship's radio may be printed and issued to the 
troops. 

(2) With the permission of the captain 
of the ship, daily news items may be read over 
the ship's loud speaker system. 

e. Organized entertainment 

Under the direction of a designated 
troop officer, musical shows, boxing matches, 
and other entertainment may be organized. 
Such entertainment, however, should not in- 
volve compulsory attendance. 



4-12 



LFM-U 




Figure Jf-S —Organized entertainment. 



f. Divine services 



Areas will be designated for the conduct 
of divine services based upon recommendations 
of the troop and ship's chaplains. 

417. STOP-OVERS 

a. Organized recreation parties ashore 

(1) During stop-overs en route to the 
final destination, troops should be sent ashore 
for organized recreation, whenever practicable. 

(2) The commanding officer of troops 
or his representative must arrange with the 
commanding officer of the ship or his representa- 
tive for water transportation for recreation 
parties. 

(3) Recreation parties must be organ- 
ized into groups or units, each under the 



command of an officer or noncommissioned 
officer. 

b. Swimming 

Swimming over the side of the ship 
during a stop-over can be authorized by the 
captain of the ship or higher authority when 
the deanliness of the water, tide conditions, 
and other safety factors permit. 

c. Liberty 

(1) During a stop-over, liberty can be 
granted by the commanding officer of troops, 
with permission of higher authority. 

(2) Prior to leaving the ship, troops 
should be inspected for cleanliness, proper 
uniform, and instructed in their proper conduct 
and appearance ashore, 



4-13 



LFM-18 



I 



' 4 



Figure l- i . — Divine eertiees being held en route to the objective. 



418. UNIFORMS 
a. Underway 

(1) The commanding officer of troops 
recommends a suitable uniform of the day to 



be worn by troop officers and enlisted men to 
the commanding officer of the ship. 

(2) The uniform prescribed should fit 
the activity in which the troops will be engaged, 
such as liberty, recreation, or working parties. 



4-14 



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4-15 



LFM-18 

Section 5 
TRAINING ABOARD SHIP 

Paragraph Page 



General 501 5-1 

Physical Conditioning 502 5-1 

Combat Orientation 503 5-1 

Debarkation Exercises 504 5-2 

Landing Rehearsals . 505 5-4 

Training While Underway 506 5-5 

Debarkation Training Aboard Landing Ships 507 5-5 

Firing of Weapons 508 5-5 



LFM-18 



Section 5 
TRAINING ABOARD SHIP 



Ml. GENERAL 

Full advantage will be taken of all time 
aboard ship, however limited, for preparing 
troops for the accomplishment of their mission. 
This is attained first, by the thorough physical 
conditioning of all men and officers, and second, 
by a highly organized program of training by 
which means the troops wilt be oriented, briefed, 
and rehearsed in the actual procedure to be 
carried out at the objective. 

502. PHYSICAL CONDITIONING 

a. Schedule 

All troops must be exercised daily to 
ensure that they will be physically fit for com- 
bat operations. Aboard ship this is best ac- 
complished by organized calisthenics. The 
schedule setting forth physical drill periods will 
be coordinated with the ship's routine. 

b. Special facilities 

Ships should provide every practicable 
assistance and facility for exercising troops. 
Climbing ropes, cargo nets suspended from 
hatch coamings, and other such devices will aid 
materially in any program designed to preserve 
the physical fitness of embarked troops. 

503. COMBAT ORIENTATION 

a. Troop units 

With the exception of organization com- 
manders and certain staff members, security 
measures normally preclude troops being in- 
formed of their destination and mission until 
after embarkation is completed and the ship is 
underway. Once underway, the officers of em- 
barked troop units are assembled and informed 
of their destination, their mission, and the plans 



for the employment of their units. Troop offi- 
cers then disseminate this information to their 
respective organizations. 

b. Ship's officers 

The commanding officer of troops makes 
the necessary arrangements with the ship's 
captain for the orientation of the ship's officers 
regarding the mission and general plan of em- 
ployment of the embarked troop units. 

c. Training aids 

Orientation of both troop and ship's 
personnel will be greatly facilitated by the use 
of training aids. Training aids which are par- 
ticularly adaptable for use aboard ship are: 

(1) Aerial photographs, maps, and re- 
lief maps of suitable size and number are 
mounted in parts of the ship where they may 
be studied by all embarked troops. Relief 
maps are of particular value because they 
present a three dimensional view of the objec- 
tive, and are the most easily understood. All 
such maps, photographs, and charts which are 
posted should show beaches, boundaries, zones 
of action, and the general scheme of maneuver 
of the troops. 

(2) Public address systems should be 
used, since the noise aboard ship frequently 
makes it difficult for instructions to be heard by 
all troops. Troop commanders in their prior 
planning for training aids should either provide 
their own public address systems, or make firm 
arrangements with the ship for use of the 
portable public address system usually carried 
aboard transports. 

d. Briefing 

(1) All troops should be carefully 
briefed as to the pertinent details of the opera- 



5-1 




Figure 5- 1. — Unit leaders orient their men on the forthcoming operation. 



tion. This briefing is a continuous process as 
new information is received regarding the 
enemy and conditions at the objective. It 
should include a concise outline of the operation 
as a whole in addition to more detailed matter 
affecting the individual units. 

(2) Upon completion of the final plans 
for the landing attack, the commanding officer 
of troops, through his staff, will hold sufficient 
conferences to enable all troops, and ship's 
personnel concerned, to be briefed in detail in 
the actual proeed ures to be effected in the land- 
ing at the objective. 

504. DEBARKATION EXERCISES 

a. General 

(1) Debarkation for an assault landing 
is accomplished by unloading troops and their 



equipment in landing craft in accordance with 
the boat assignment tables. 

(2) The general debarkation plan will 
be drafted prior to embarkation. Necessary 
changes in the detailed plans for debarkation 
will be completed after embarkation. 

(3) The debarkation of troops and their 
equipment will be executed in accordance with 
the instructions set forth in the debarkation 
schedule. The debarkation schedule is the 
responsibility of the commanding officer of 
troops, and is prepared in conjunction with the 
boat assignment table. Debarkation of troops 
and equipment must be accomplished in the 
shortest possible time. Final adjustments in 
the debarkation plan, and the speed with which 
the debarkation is conducted, will depend to a 
considerable degree upon the procedures estab- 



5-2 



LFM-18 




lished as the result of rehearsals conducted 
aboard ship 

b. Rehearsals 

(1) Debarkation exercises duplicate as 
closely as possible the actual procedure to be 
used in the debarkation of troops and their 
equipment at the objective. All troops must 
be familiar with the location of their debarka- 
tion stations and the routes between assembly 
areas and debarkation stations. The location 
and marking of rail loading stations and debar- 
kation nets, as well as the routes thereto, will 
be in accordance with established doctrine 
NWP-22, as modified by conditions aboard 
individual ships. 

(2) In general, routes for the movement 
of boat teams to their debarkation stations are 



selected to provide the shortest possible route 
to avoid converging troop columns in narrow 
passageways or on ladders, and to conform 
with the provisions of the ship's watertight 
integrity plan. 

c. Training while at anchor 

(1) During periods when the ship is at 
anchor, maximum advantage will be taken of 
opportunities for training which will not be 
possible once the ship is underway. When 
underway, it is not practicable for ships to 
lower landing craft for debarkation and landing 
exercises. 

(2) Debarkation drills will be repeated 
until troops and ship's personnel have become 
thoroughly familiar with the necessary pro- 
cedure. 



5-3 



LFM-18 



Figure 5-3.~Relief maps are training aids that are easily understood. 



(3) Final debarkation drills will be 
carried out with full equipment, including 
heavy items such as machine guns, mortars, 
and radio, which require lowering and guide 
lines or slings for loading. Necessary lowering 
and guide lines will be furnished by the ship 
concerned. 

505. LANDING REHEARSALS 

a. It is essential to the proper execution of 
the landing attack that all elements of the land- 
ing force conduct full scale landing rehearsals 
after completion of embarkation. These land- 
ing exercises should be carried out under cir- 
cumstances which duplicate as closely as 
possible the beach and terrain conditions which 
will be encountered at the objective. All ele- 
ments of the amphibious troops and amphibious 



task force, are rehearsed in the exact procedure 
to be effected during the landing attack at the 
objective. 

b. Prior to moving to the area of the main 
landing rehearsals, it will frequently be possible 
for embarked landing teams to engage in limited 
landing exercises against constructive beaches. 
Such exercises are desirable because they enable 
troops to perfect their debarkation procedures, 
and provide opportunity for boat groups to 
rehearse the formations and control of landing 
craft. 

c. Full scale dress rehearsals will be con- 
ducted with all individual equipment and with 
sufficient organizational equipment and supplies 
to properly exercise all command and logistic 
control agencies, including shore parties. Such 



5-4 



LFM-18 



rehearsals must be followed by critiques to 
analyze the weaknesses revealed during the exer- 
cise. Corrective action will be taken to ensure 
that mistakes made during rehearsals will not 
be duplicated during the actual combat opera- 
tion. 

506. TRAINING WHILE UNDERWAY 

a. General 

Training conducted while the ship is 
underway will be limited to those activities 
which do not interfere with the ship's operating 
procedures. Crowded conditions aboard ship 
require that shipboard routine be highly organ- 
ized. Consequently, all training must be 
thoroughly planned and organized in order to 
avoid conflicting activities. 

b. The training program while the ship is 
underway may include the following: 

(1) Troop life aboard ship, to include 
naval customs, ship terminology and routine, 
and anticipated ship's drills and debarkation 
exercises. 

(2) Physical conditioning. 

(3) Debarkation drills, as discussed in 
previous paragraphs, to include moving to de- 
barkation stations with full equipment during 
darkened ship. 

(4) Weapons school, stressing nomen- 
clature, functioning, care and cleaning of all 
weapons with which the landing force is 
equipped. 

(5) Armored vehicle and aircraft recog- 
nition, to assist in the identification of enemy 
armor and aircraft which can be expected in the 
theater of operations. 

(6) Map reading and combat orienta- 
tion. Instructions should stress familiarization 
with the maps and aerial photographs which 
will be used at the objective. 

(7) Intelligence indoctrination as to the 
characteristics, customs, and language of the 
combatants and civilians at the objective. 



(8) Briefing on the mission and employ- 
ment of all embarked units. 

507. DEBARKATION TRAINING ABOARD 

LANDING SHIPS 

a. The debarkation of troops from landing 
ships, such as LST or LSD, is much simpler 
than from transports. To ensure smooth and 
rapid unloading of troops and materiel, how- 
ever, it is necessary to hold debarkation exer- 
cises. Landing ships will normally debark as- 
sault troops and equipment in amphibian 
vehicles from an assembly area located as close 
to the line of departure as conditions will per- 
mit. While at anchor, troops should be com- 
pletely debarked during such drills. At sea, 
debarkation exercises will be restricted to 
rehearsing the loading of the amphibian vehicle 
teams into their respective vehicles. 

b. Troops aboard landing ships may be 
billeted by boat or vehicle teams in such manner 
that they may move by the most convenient 
route to their assigned amphibian vehicle. 
Frequent rehearsals for vehicle crews and teams 
will be held to enable troops to move to their 
assigned vehicles in the minimum time. In 
the case of a night landing, rehearsals will be 
held in the dark. 

e. Assignment of communications personnel 
to duties in the Joint Communication Center 
and to the operation of radio and visual circuits 
while embarked ensures maintenance of a high 
state of training. 

508. FIRING OF WEAPONS 

The commanding officer of the ship may 
authorize the firing of weapons off the ship's 
deck. Such firing should be limited to famil- 
iarization and test firing and must be closely 
supervised to ensure observance of all safety 
precautions particularly in regard to the di- 
rection of fire in relation to other ships of the 
convoy. The test firing of automatic weapons 
should be accomplished as close to the time of 
arrival at the objective as possible to assure 
proper functioning during the landing attack. 



5-5 



LFM-18 



INDEX 



A 


P&rtfrapll 




Page 


Administration: 








Facilities 


30l(r 




■i 1 

O u 


Troop 


402 




A 1 


A n H :ti TPTztft Hptfii 

1111 .^iJULJ ^_ 1 £VLlr UCLoLLA 


** i ^a 




A 11 
4 11 


Authoritv 


?ni 9(\9 

til 1 , ilJi 




1 9 1 


B 

Barber 


402f 




4 1 


Bathing 


407c. 408c 


4 


7. 4 8 


Billeting 


301c, 302c 


3 


1, 3 3 


Brig 

C 

Cleaning and preservation 


402d 




4 1 


410 




4 8 


Cleaning details 


410b 




4 8 


Cleaning gear 


410c 




4 8 


Responsibilities 


410a 




4 8 


Combat orientation. 


503 




5 1 


Command relationship. 


S;c. 2 




2 1 


Commanding officer of ship 


202 




2 I 


Commanding officer of troops 203, 


2 


1, 4 1 


402c, 406, 407a 


4 5. 4 7 


Discipline 


205 




2 3 


General . 


201 




2 1 


Liaison 


204 




2 2 


Communication: 








Equipment stowage 


403a (3) 




4 1 


Joint Communication Center 403b 




1 2 


Underway 

D 

Deharkation: 


301g, 403 


3 


3,4 1 








Exercises 


504 




5 2 


Rehearsals 


504b 




5 3 


Training aboard landing ships 507 




5 5 


Discipline 


205, 402c 


2 3,4 1 


Brig 


402d 




4 1 


Inspections 


406 




4 5 


Pilfering 


412c 




4 10 


Water conservation 


408 




4 8 


Divine services 


416f 




4 13 


Drills. _ 


414 




4 11 


Abandon ship 


414e 




4 11 


Antiaircraft details 


414a 




4 11 


Fire and collision 


414b 




4 11 


General quarters 


414d 




4 11 


Duties and responsibilities: 








Advance party 


301 




3 1 


Billeting officer 


204a f2 




2 2 


Combat cargo officer 204a (2), (3) 




2 2 


Commanding officer of ship 


201b, 20 Id 




2 1 


Commanding officer of troop 


201d, 




2 1, 


203, 205. 402c, 406, 407a, 410a 


2 1,2 3, 






4 


1,4 5, 






4 7, 4 8 


Communication officer 


403 




4 1 



Duties and responsibilities 
Embarkation officer 



Paragraph 

Con. 

203c, 
204a (3), 410c 
Executive officer of ship 204a (lj (a) 
Executive officer of troops 204a 
(1) (bj, 301f 



Laundry officer 
Mess officer 
Medical officer 
Officer of the day 
Officer of the deck 
Police officer 



402e 
204a (5), 404 
407e 

204a (6) (b), 411 
204a (6) l(a; 
204a (4), 406 



Recreation and morale officer 204a 

(7), 301e 



Firing 



General quarters 



Health and sanitation 
Barbers 
Inspections 



H 



1 



Inspections: 

Compartments 

Equipment and clothing 

Messing. 

Personnel 

Pre-embarkation 

Vehicles 

Ventilation 
Introduction 



Laundry 

Leave and liberty 
Liaison . 

Health and sanitation 
Life preservers 



508 



4t4d 



407 
402f 
406a, h 



406a 
406c 
404! 
406b 
301f 
406d 
302g 
Sec. 1 



Page 

2 2, 

2,4 8 
2 2 
2 2, 
3-2 
4 1 

3,4 3 
4 7 

3, 4 8 

2 3 
2,4 5 

■I 3, 

3 2 



Embarkation 


Sec. 3 




1 


Muster 


302e 




3 


Planning 


301 


3 


1 


Rosters 


301d 


3 


2 


Troops 


302 


3 


3 


Equipment 


409 


4 




General 


409a 


4 


8 


Individual stowage 


302d, f 


3 3, 3 


3 


Topside stowage 


409b 


4 


S 


Troop space and hold stowage 


409c 


4 


8 



5 5 



4 11 



4 7 
4 ] 

4 5, 4 5 



4 6 
3 4 
I 1 



402e 4 1 

302h, 417c 3 4, 4 13 

204,403b 2 2, 4 2 

407b 4 7 

415 4 11 



Index-1 



LFM-18 



M 


Paragraph 


Page 






Paragraph 




Mail 


413f 


4 10 


Ship's guard 




411 


4 8 


Mast, request 


402c 


4 1 


Duties 




411b 


4-9 


Messing ; 






General quarters 




4Hd 


4 11 


Noncommissioned officer 


404c 


4 3 


Sentries 




411c, 412a 


4 9, 4 10 


Officer 


405 


4 3 


Restricted areas 




411d 


4 9 


Troop 


404 


4 3 


Ship's regulations 




402a 


4 1 


Muster ■ 






Sick call 




407e 


4 7 


Embarkation 


302e 


3 3 


Smoking 




414c 


4 11 


Underway 


402b 


4 1 


Slop -overs 




417 


4 13 


o 






Swimming 




417b 


4 13 


Office hours 




4 1 

** l 




T 






P 






Training 




Sec. 5 


5 1 




103 502 


11,51 




I! 






Pilffiri ng 


412 


4 10 














"Underway 




Sec. 4 


4 1 


H 






Uniforms 




418 


4 14 


Recreation and morale 


301e, 416 


3 2, 4 12 










Leave and liberty 




3 4 




V 






Space _ 




4 1 


Ventilation 




302g 


3 4 




504b 505 


5 3, 5 4 


Inspections 




406a (4) (c) 


4 5 


tvsports, morning 


402b 


4 1 








s 








w 






Sanitation measures 


407d 


4 7 


Water 




408 


4 8 


Security . 


413 


4 10 


Bathing 




407c, 408c 


4 7,4 8 


Communication 


403a (3), 


4 2, 


Laundry 




402e (5) 


4 1 




403d, 403g 


4 2.4 2 


Weapons, firing 




508 


5 5 



Index-2 



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